Advertising is a paid form of impersonal communication of goods, services, and ideas by any identified sponsor through various mediums which include, print (magazines and newspapers), broadcast (radio and Tv), display (posters, billboards, and signs), network (wireless, cable, satellite, and telephone), electronic ( web page, audiotape, videotape etc.) Advertising is an important marketing communication mix tool. It is a cost effective way to deliver messages, helps to build a brand preference and also educate people.
How to develop an Advertising Program
Marketers start with the target market and customer motives in developing an advertising program. Then they should make five major decisions which are known as 5Ms of advertising. Five Ms include mission, money, media, message, and measurement.
- Mission: It defines the advertising objectives and also includes the sales goals of a company.
- Money: It tells how much a marketer can spend and how they allocate their spendings on various media. Factors to be considered while making this decision includes, various stages in product life cycle, customers base and market share, competition in the market, advertising frequency and substitute products
- Message: It tells what messages should be sent by the marketers. These things must be followed while generating messages for the market, how the message is generated, evaluation and selection, how it is executed, and social responsibility review.
- Media: Which media should marketers use to deliver their message to the public. These points must be kept in mind while deciding the media, reach, frequency and impact of the media, what are the major media types, specific media vehicles, various media timings and what is the geographical media allocation.
- Measurement: How should marketers evaluate the results of the advertising. It measures the communication and sales impact.
Advertising Objectives are specific communications task and achievement levels that need to be achieved with specific audiences in a specified time period. The advertising objectives can be classified based on their aim. whether an advertiser wishes to inform, persuade, remind, or reinforce. Decisions on the target market, marketing program, and brand positioning must be taken care of before deciding the advertising objectives.
- Informative Advertising: This advertising objective among various advertising objectives helps to create brand awareness and also gives knowledge of new products or new features of the existing products. For example, advertisements of vehicles explaining the fuel efficiency or spaciousness, cooling efficiencies of air conditioners, toothpaste’s dental protection feature all comes under informative advertising.
- Reminder Advertising: It stimulates repeat purchase of goods and services. Coca-Cola used this advertising to remind the public to buy coca-cola.
- Persuasive Advertising: This advertising objective among various advertising objectives helps to create liking, conviction, preference, and purchase of goods and services. Sometimes it uses comparative advertising that helps to compare features of two or more brands. People in Asian countries prefer explicit, verbally expressed communication of brand’s features and how marketers compare competing brands.
- Reinforcement Advertising: This is the last advertising objective among various advertising objectives which convinces current buyers that they made the right choice in buying the advertiser’s products. The best example is of automobile companies which showcase satisfying buyers who are enjoying special features of their purchased vehicle.
To choose amongst the various above mentioned advertising objectives, the companies have the following options with them.
Alternative Advertising Options
Place Advertising: Also known as out-of-home advertising which uses billboards, product placements, public spaces and point of purchase options to display advertisements. Marketers think a better way of attracting customers’ attention by doing this advertising at the places where customers either work, play or, shop. The various options to achieve advertising objectives are discussed in the following section.
- Billboards: Most commonly known as hoardings, they are displayed at airports, railway stations, red lights, inside buses and trains and many more places. In India spending on outdoor media is 6% of the total media spend. Vinyl printed hoardings are displayed instead of hand-painted as it shows better quality of images and messages. Digital billboards are in trend nowadays. The rental cost of billboards varies across various locations. The industries that use billboards to advertise include entertainment, FMCGs, automobiles, and much more. Companies targeting rural areas in South Asia also paints outer walls of buildings to showcase advertisements. These wall painting options are used by local brands targeting rural areas. Billboards are useful, but there is a disadvantage too as their impact can not be measured. Amul is the one company which has always used billboards for its advertisements since many decades.
- Product Placement: In order to get customers’ attention and communicate messages, companies place products and brands in the movie scenes. In India, it is a new trend nowadays. Some companies like Nike do not pay to movies for placing their products like shoes, jackets etc.
- Public Spaces: Advertisers place their advertisements at public places such as classrooms, airplanes, movie screens and much more places. For working women transit ads on subways, trains, and buses are the best way to reach them. Public areas, bus stops, and kiosks are another growing option for placing advertisements. Advertisers can place their ads by buying space in toilet stalls, dustbins, elevators, petrol pumps, train tickets, etc.
- Point of Purchase: Advertisers are using Point of Purchase (P-O-P) to communicate with customers. Advertising in stores uses aisles, shopping carts, shelves and promotions such as in-store demonstrations. Some supermarkets sell floor space for placing company logos. Stores also provide video screens for Tv ads.